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Whatever the actual number of victims, "[t]he grim truth was that, for every person who died in Lari's first massacre, at least two more were killed in retaliation in the second.
Aside from the Lari massacres, Kikuyu were also tortured, mutilated and murdered by Mau Mau on many other occasions. The best known European victim was Michael Ruck, aged six, who was hacked to death with pangas along with his parents, Roger and Esme, and one of the Rucks' farm workers, Muthura Nagahu, who had tried to help the family.
In , the poisonous latex of the African milk bush was used by members of Mau Mau to kill cattle in an incident of biological warfare. Although Mau Mau was effectively crushed by the end of , it was not until the First Lancaster House Conference , in January , that native Kenyan majority rule was established and the period of colonial transition to independence initiated.
There is continuing debate about Mau Mau's and the rebellion's effects on decolonisation and on Kenya after independence.
Regarding decolonisation, the most common view is that Kenya's independence came about as a result of the British government's deciding that a continuance of colonial rule would entail a greater use of force than that which the British public would tolerate.
It has been argued that the conflict helped set the stage for Kenyan independence in December ,  or at least secured the prospect of Black-majority rule once the British left.
On 12 September , the British government unveiled a Mau Mau memorial statue in Nairobi's Uhuru Park that it had funded "as a symbol of reconciliation between the British government, the Mau Mau, and all those who suffered".
This followed a June decision by Britain to compensate more than 5, Kenyans it tortured and abused during the Mau Mau insurgency. Once the ban was removed, former Mau Mau members who had been castrated or otherwise tortured were supported by the Kenya Human Rights Commission, in particular by the Commission's George Morara, in their attempt to take on the British government;   their lawyers had amassed 6, depositions regarding human rights abuses by late Ben Macintyre of The Times said of the legal case: "Opponents of these proceedings have pointed out, rightly, that the Mau Mau was a brutal terrorist force, guilty of the most dreadful atrocities.
Yet only one of the claimants is of that stamp—Mr Nzili. He has admitted taking the Mau Mau oath and said that all he did was to ferry food to the fighters in the forest.
None has been accused, let alone convicted, of any crime. Upon publication of Caroline Elkins' Imperial Reckoning in , Kenya called for an apology from the UK for atrocities committed during the s.
In July , "George Morara strode down the corridor and into a crowded little room [in Nairobi] where 30 elderly Kenyans sat hunched together around a table clutching cups of hot tea and sharing plates of biscuits.
It may well be thought strange, or perhaps even dishonourable, that a legal system which will not in any circumstances admit into its proceedings evidence obtained by torture should yet refuse to entertain a claim against the Government in its own jurisdiction for that Government's allegedly negligent failure to prevent torture which it had the means to prevent.
Furthermore, resort to technicality. Though the arguments against reopening very old wounds are seductive, they fail morally.
There are living claimants and it most certainly was not their fault that the documentary evidence that seems to support their claims was for so long 'lost' in the governmental filing system.
During the course of the Mau Mau legal battle in London, a large amount of what was stated to be formerly lost Foreign Office archival material was finally brought to light, while yet more was discovered to be missing.
Regarding the Mau Mau Uprising, the records included confirmation of "the extent of the violence inflicted on suspected Mau Mau rebels"  in British detention camps documented in Caroline Elkins' study.
Commenting on the papers, David Anderson stated that the "documents were hidden away to protect the guilty",  and "that the extent of abuse now being revealed is truly disturbing".
Allegations about beatings and violence were widespread. Basically you could get away with murder. It was systematic", Anderson said.
Bennett said that "the British Army retained ultimate operational control over all security forces throughout the Emergency", and that its military intelligence operation worked "hand in glove" with the Kenyan Special Branch "including in screening and interrogations in centres and detention camps".
The Kenyan government sent a letter to Hague insisting that the UK government was legally liable for the atrocities. It is time that the mockery of justice that was perpetrated in this country at that time, should be, must be righted.
I feel ashamed to have come from a Britain that did what it did here [in Kenya]. Thirteen boxes of "top secret" Kenya files are still missing.
On 6 June , the foreign secretary, William Hague, told parliament that the UK government had reached a settlement with the claimants.
The Government will also support the construction of a memorial in Nairobi to the victims of torture and ill-treatment during the colonial era. It is often argued that Mau Mau was suppressed as a subject for public discussion in Kenya during the periods under Kenyatta and Daniel arap Moi because of the key positions and influential presence of some loyalists in government, business and other elite sectors of Kenyan society post Members of Mau Mau are currently recognised by the Kenyan Government as freedom-independence heroes and heroines who sacrificed their lives in order to free Kenyans from colonial rule.
This official celebration of Mau Mau is in marked contrast to a post-colonial norm of Kenyan governments rejection of the Mau Mau as a symbol of national liberation.
It was also the name of another militant group that sprang up briefly in the spring of ; the group was broken up during a brief operation from 26 March to 30 April.
Contract labourers are those who sign a contract of service before a magistrate, for periods varying from three to twelve months. Casual labourers leave their reserves to engage themselves to European employers for any period from one day upwards.
The phenomenon of squatters arose in response to the complementary difficulties of Europeans in finding labourers and of Africans in gaining access to arable and grazing land.
The alleged member or sympathiser of Mau Mau would be interrogated in order to obtain an admission of guilt—specifically, a confession that they had taken the Mau Mau oath—as well as for intelligence.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Mau Mau. This article is about the conflict in Kenya. For other uses, see Mau Mau disambiguation.
Kenyan insurgency, — Date — Location British Kenya. Mau Mau Uprising. The principal item in the natural resources of Kenya is the land, and in this term we include the colony's mineral resources.
It seems to us that our major objective must clearly be the preservation and the wise use of this most important asset.
You may travel through the length and breadth of Kitui Reserve and you will fail to find in it any enterprise, building, or structure of any sort which Government has provided at the cost of more than a few sovereigns for the direct benefit of the natives.
The place was little better than a wilderness when I first knew it 25 years ago, and it remains a wilderness to-day as far as our efforts are concerned.
If we left that district to-morrow the only permanent evidence of our occupation would be the buildings we have erected for the use of our tax-collecting staff.
The greater part of the wealth of the country is at present in our hands. This land we have made is our land by right—by right of achievement.
It is often assumed that in a conflict there are two sides in opposition to one another, and that a person who is not actively committed to one side must be supporting the other.
During the course of a conflict, leaders on both sides will use this argument to gain active support from the "crowd".
In reality, conflicts involving more than two persons usually have more than two sides, and if a resistance movement is to be successful, propaganda and politicization are essential.
Between and , when the fighting was at its worst, the Kikuyu districts of Kenya became a police state in the very fullest sense of that term.
Our sources have produced nothing to indicate that Kenyatta, or his associates in the UK, are directly involved in Mau Mau activities, or that Kenyatta is essential to Mau Mau as a leader, or that he is in a position to direct its activities.
Main article: Swynnerton Plan. It would be difficult to argue that the colonial government envisioned its own version of a gulag when the Emergency first started.
Colonial officials in Kenya and Britain all believed that Mau Mau would be over in less than three months. One courageous judge in Nairobi explicitly drew the parallel: Kenya's Belsen, he called one camp.
In a half-circle against the reed walls of the enclosure stand eight young, African women. There's neither hate nor apprehension in their gaze.
It's like a talk in the headmistress's study; a headmistress who is firm but kindly. The number of cases of pulmonary tuberculosis which is being disclosed in Prison and Detention Camps is causing some embarrassment.
Short rations, overwork, brutality, humiliating and disgusting treatment and flogging—all in violation of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
At the end of , the Administration were faced with the serious problem of the concealment of terrorists and supply of food to them. This was widespread and, owing to the scattered nature of the homesteads, fear of detection was negligible; so, in the first instance, the inhabitants of those areas were made to build and live in concentrated villages.
This first step had to be taken speedily, somewhat to the detriment of usual health measures and was definitely a punitive short-term measure.
Whilst they [the Kikuyu] could not be expected to take kindly at first to a departure from their traditional way of life, such as living in villages, they need and desire to be told just what to do.
From the health point of view, I regard villagisation as being exceedingly dangerous and we are already starting to reap the benefits.
We knew the slow method of torture [at the Mau Mau Investigation Center] was worse than anything we could do. Special Branch there had a way of slowly electrocuting a Kuke—they'd rough up one for days.
Once I went personally to drop off one gang member who needed special treatment. I stayed for a few hours to help the boys out, softening him up. Things got a little out of hand.
By the time I cut his balls off, he had no ears, and his eyeball, the right one, I think, was hanging out of its socket. Too bad, he died before we got much out of him.
See also: British war crimes. Bottles often broken , gun barrels, knives, snakes, vermin, and hot eggs were thrust up men's rectums and women's vaginas.
The screening teams whipped, shot, burned and mutilated Mau Mau suspects, ostensibly to gather intelligence for military operations and as court evidence.
Mau Mau fighters,. The horrors they practiced included the following: decapitation and general mutilation of civilians, torture before murder, bodies bound up in sacks and dropped in wells, burning the victims alive, gouging out of eyes, splitting open the stomachs of pregnant women.
No war can justify such gruesome actions. In man's inhumanity to man, there is no race distinction. The Africans were practicing it on themselves.
There was no reason and no restraint on both sides. Main article: Lari massacre. If we are going to sin, we must sin quietly. Main article: Foreign and Commonwealth Office migrated archives.
Main criticism we shall have to meet is that 'Cowan plan'  which was approved by Government contained instructions which in effect authorised unlawful use of violence against detainees.
Partisan questions about the Mau Mau war have. How historically necessary was Mau Mau? Did its secretive violence alone have the power to destroy white supremacy?
Did Mau Mau aim at freedom for all Kenyans? Has the self-sacrificial victory of the poor been unjustly forgotten, and appropriated by the rich?
We are determined to have independence in peace, and we shall not allow hooligans to rule Kenya. We must have no hatred towards one another.
Mau Mau was a disease which had been eradicated, and must never be remembered again. Retrieved 8 March Retrieved 12 February BBC News.
Retrieved 23 July Unbowed: a memoir. Alfred A. The investigations of the Kenya Land Commission of — are a case study in such lack of foresight, for the findings and recommendations of this commission, particularly those regarding the claims of the Kikuyu of Kiambu, would serve to exacerbate other grievances and nurture the seeds of a growing African nationalism in Kenya".
Retrieved 11 April Francis Hall, an officer in the Imperial British East Africa Company and after whom Fort Hall was named, asserted: "There is only one way to improve the Wakikuyu [and] that is wipe them out; I should be only too delighted to do so, but we have to depend on them for food supplies.
Naked spearmen fall in swathes before machine-guns, without inflicting a single casualty in return. Meanwhile the troops burn all the huts and collect all the live stock within reach.
Resistance once at an end, the leaders of the rebellion are surrendered for imprisonment. Risings that followed such a course could hardly be repeated.
A period of calm followed. And when unrest again appeared it was with other leaders. Strayer 9 February The New York Times.
Retrieved 20 March Elkins , p. The colonial state shared the desire of the European settler to encourage Africans into the labour market, whilst also sharing a concern to moderate the wages paid to workers".
Though finalised in , reserves were first instituted by the Crown Lands Ordinance of —see Ormsby-Gore , p. Retrieved 13 April Retrieved 13 May Van Zwanenberg; Anne King An Economic History of Kenya and Uganda The Bowering Press.
Histories of the Hanged. Mau Mau Rebellion. Pen and Sword. Boulder: Westview Press. The story of this 'psychic epidemic' and others like it were recounted over the years as evidence depicting the predisposition of Africans to episodic mass hysteria.
For his " magnum opus ", see Carothers Retrieved 12 May There was lots of suffering on the other side too. This was a dirty war. It became a civil war—though that idea remains extremely unpopular in Kenya today.
The quote is of Professor David Anderson. June London Review of Books. Retrieved 3 May The New York Review of Books.
While Elstein regards the "requirement" for the "great majority of Kikuyu" to live inside "fortified villages" as "serv[ing] the purpose of protection", Professor David Anderson amongst others regards the "compulsory resettlement" of "1,, Kikuyu" inside what, for the "most" part, were "little more than concentration camps" as "punitive.
Retrieved 8 August Retrieved 29 May See also: Walton , pp. See also the relevant footnote, n. Sunday Mail. Retrieved 17 November — via National Library of Australia.
The Sunday Herald. Friedman Ret. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 9 November — via National Library of Australia.
Nearly three-quarters of the city's African male population of sixty thousand were Kikuyu, and most of these men, along with some twenty thousand Kikuyu women and children accompanying them, were allegedly 'active or passive supporters of Mau Mau'.
Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. It is not known how many humans or animals were killed. Mau Mau! Largely framed prior to the declaration of the State of Emergency in , but not implemented until two years later, this development is central to the story of Kenya's decolonization".
For Anderson, see his Histories of the Hanged , p. The Guardian. Retrieved 14 April They therefore confessed to British officers, and sought an early release from detention.
Other detainees refused to accept the British demand that they sully other people's reputations by naming those whom they knew to be involved in Mau Mau.
This 'hard core' kept their mouths closed, and languished for years in detention. The battle behind the wire was not fought over detainees' loyalty to a Mau Mau movement.
Detainees' intellectual and moral concerns were always close to home. British officials thought that those who confessed had broken their allegiance to Mau Mau.
But what moved detainees to confess was not their broken loyalty to Mau Mau, but their devotion to their families. British officials played on this devotion to hasten a confession.
The battle behind the wire was not fought between patriotic hard-core Mau Mau and weak-kneed, wavering, broken men who confessed.
Both hard core and soft core had their families in mind. The Times. It is debatable whether Peter Kenyatta was sympathetic to Mau Mau in the first place and therefore whether he truly switched sides.
Baring informed Lennox-Boyd that eight European officers were facing accusations of a series of murders, beatings and shootings.
They included: "One District Officer, murder by beating up and roasting alive of one African. See also n. Anderson , p. The quote is of the colony's director of medical services.
Schemes of medical help, however desirable and however high their medical priority, could not in [these] circumstances be approved". The quote is of Baring.
The Journal of African History. Journal of African Economies. Solis 15 February Cambridge University Press.
Britain's gulag: the brutal end of empire in Kenya. British colonial rule, violence and the historians of Mau Mau".
The Round Table. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana: pp. Archived from the original on 21 October Retrieved 28 July Retrieved 6 December Seth Amsterdam: Fredonia Books.
This episode is not mentioned in histories of the Mau Mau revolt, suggesting that such incidents were rare.
The post-colonial state must therefore be seen as a representation of the interests protected and promoted during the latter years of colonial rule.
Under Jomo Kenyatta, the post-colonial state represented a 'pact-of-domination' between transnational capital, the elite and the executive.
It was not that Mau Mau won its war against the British; guerrilla movements rarely win in military terms; and militarily Mau Mau was defeated.
But in order to crown peace with sustainable civil governance—and thus reopen a prospect of controlled decolonization—the British had to abandon 'multiracialism' and adopt African rule as their vision of Kenya's future.
The blood of Mau Mau, no matter how peculiarly ethnic in source and aim, was the seed of Kenya's all-African sovereignty.
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Added to Watchlist. Everything That's New on Netflix in September. Watchlist Share this Rating Title: Mau Mau 6. Their navigators have to go out to sea to catch fish so they can eat.
Mau was not like me, who learned by using both science and tradition. I started at an old age, at about He started at one.
He was picked by his grandfather, the master navigator for his people, taken to the tide pools at different parts of the island to sit in the water and sense the subtle changes in the water's movements.
To feel the wind. To connect himself to that ocean world at a young age. His grandfather took him out to sail with him at age four. Mau told me that he would get seasick and when he was seven years old, his grandfather would tie his hands and drag him behind the canoe to get rid of that.
This was not abuse. This was to get him ready for the task of serving his community as a navigator. Most of all, we realized we did not know enough.
We needed a teacher. Mau became essential. Mau is one of the few traditional master navigators of the Pacific left. And Mau was the only one who was willing and able to reach beyond his culture to ours.
I searched for Mau Piailug. Finally, I found him and flew to meet him. Mau is a man of few words, and all he said in answer to my plea for help was, "We will see.
I will let you know. Then one day I got a phone call; Mau was going to be in Honolulu with his son the next day. When Mau arrived here back in , he said, "I will train you to find Tahiti because I don't want you to die.
I asked him to teach me in the traditional ways. But Mau knew better. He said, "You take paper and pencil! You write down! I teach you little bit at a time.
I tell you once, and you don't forget. Mau learned to turn the clues from the heavens and the ocean into knowledge by growing up at the side of his grandfather — he had been an apprentice in the traditional way.
He had learned to remember many things through chants and would still chant to himself to "revisit information. Mau's greatness as a teacher was to recognize that I had to learn differently.
I was an adult; I needed to experiment, and Mau let me. He never impeded my experimenting and sometimes even joined in.
I never knew when a lesson started. Mau would suddenly sit down on the ground and teach me something about the stars.
He'd draw a circle in the sand for the heavens; stones or shells would be the stars; coconut fronds were shaped into the form of a canoe; and single fronds represented the swells.
He used string to trace the paths of the stars across the heaven or to connect important points. The best was going out on my fishing boat with Mau I watched what he watched, listened to what he listened to, felt what he felt.
The hardest for me was to learn to read the ocean swells the way he can. Mau is able to tell so much from the swells-the direction we are traveling, the approach of an island.
But this knowledge is hard to transmit. We don't sense things in exactly the same way as the next person does.
To help me become sensitive to the movements of the ocean, Mau would steer different courses into the waves, and I would try to get the feel and remember the feel.
Mau can unlock the signs of the ocean world and can feel his way through the ocean. Mau is so powerful.
The first time Mau was in Hawai'i, I was in awe of him-I would just watch him and didn't dare to ask him questions.
One night, when we were in Snug Harbor, someone asked him where the Southern Cross was. Mau, without turning around or moving his head, pointed in the direction of a brightly lit street lamp.
I was curious and checked it. I ran around the street light and there, just where Mau had pointed, was the Southern Cross.
It's like magic; Mau knows where something is without seeing it.